The anti-globalization movement is almost by definition opposed to such agreements, but some groups normally allied within this movement, for example. B the Green parties aspire to fair trade or secure trade rules that mitigate the real and supposed negative effects of globalisation. The pros and cons of free trade agreements have effects on jobs, business growth and living standards: over the past two decades, the number of trade agreements has increased. Economists have examined in detail the economic consequences of these agreements and have focused on their effects on variables such as trade flows, productivity, firm exit and entry, employment, and wages (e.g. B Pavcnik 2002, Trefler 2004, Baier and Bergstrand 2007, Topalova and Khandelwal 2012). A common market is a kind of trade agreement in which members remove internal barriers to trade, adopt common strategies for dealing with non-members, and allow members to move freely among themselves. Regional trade agreements have the following advantages: regional trade agreements refer to a treaty signed by two or more countries to promote the free movement of goods and services across the borders of its members. Agreement with internal rules that Member States comply with each other. As regards relations with third countries, there are external rules with which members comply. All agreements concluded outside the WTO framework (which confer additional benefits beyond the WTO most-favoured-nation level, but which apply only between signatories and not other WTO members) are considered preferential by the WTO. Under WTO rules, these agreements are subject to certain requirements such as notification to the WTO and general reciprocity (preferences should apply equally to each signatory) when unilateral preferences (some signatories enjoy preferential market access from other signatories without reducing their own customs duties) are allowed only in exceptional circumstances and as a temporary measure.  Regional trade agreements are very difficult to set up and engage when countries are more diverse. We have experimented with a multitude of variants of this approach, but the results are still very similar: trade agreements increase quality, but they do not have much influence on price and diversity.
Our initial results indicate that EU trade agreements have increased the quality of products imported by trading partners by around 7% over a five-year period. Our overall results mask a great heterogeneity of therapeutic effects between EU countries, trading partners and types of trade agreements. For example, higher-income EU countries (Belgium/Luxembourg, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) recorded significantly higher quality gains than other EU countries. For the group of low-income EU countries (Greece, Portugal and Spain), the effects of trade agreements have had an almost exclusive impact on lower prices and not on quality improvements. These results underline the importance of taking quality into account. A naïve approach, which only considers the impact of trade agreements on prices (not adjusted for quality) could, wrongly, conclude that trade agreements do not have an impact on consumers. . . .