Member States benefit from trade agreements, including increased employment opportunities, lower unemployment rates and increased market opportunities. Since trade agreements generally come with investment guarantees, investors who wish to invest in developing countries are protected from political risks. As soon as the agreements go beyond the regional level, they need help. The World Trade Organization intervenes at this stage. This international body contributes to the negotiation and implementation of global trade agreements. The Association of South Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 between Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand to encourage politics and the economy, and it helps them all to maintain regional stability.  The European Union is now a remarkable example of free trade. Member States form an essentially borderless unit for trade purposes, and the introduction of the euro by most of these countries paves the way. It should be noted that this system is governed by a Brussels-based bureaucracy, which has to deal with the many trade-related issues that arise between the representatives of the Member States.
As a multilateral trade agreement, GATT calls on its signatories to extend the status of the Most Preferred Nation (MFN) to other trading partners participating in the WTO. MFN status means that each WTO member enjoys the same tariff treatment of its products in foreign markets as the “preferred” country that competes in the same market, thus excluding preferences or discrimination from a Member State. A trade agreement (also known as a trade pact) is a large-scale tax, customs and trade agreement, which often includes investment guarantees. It exists when two or more countries agree on conditions that help them trade with each other. The most frequent trade agreements are preferential and free trade regimes to reduce (or remove) tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions imposed on intermediaries. From there, we can imagine how negotiators would begin to agree that they should use transparent policy instruments so that they know what has been agreed and that they can monitor compliance with them. As discussed below, if the diagnosis of the problem is a trade problem anyway, they would also focus on mutual liberalization. They would then have to deal with the problem of third-party externalities, which would lead to the examination of non-discrimination.
Second, a fundamental question would be whether they negotiate specific tariffs or limits. At this point, they could ask several “and if” questions, in terms of upward flexibility in relation to shocks, non-overflowing opportunistic interventions, dispute resolution rules in the event of unforeseen problems, export policy instruments, etc. We refer to other manual chapters for the full examination of these important issues and touch on them only briefly. As mentioned above, we are focusing here on assessing and interpreting the characteristics of reciprocity, MFN and collective agreements and surpluses. Despite the potential tensions between the two approaches, it appears that multilateral and bilateral/regional trade agreements will remain characteristics of the global economy. However, both the WTO and agreements such as NAFTA are controversial among groups such as alter-globalists, who argue that such agreements serve the interests of multinationals and not workers, while free trade was a proven method of improving economic performance and increasing overall income. To counter this opposition, pressure has been exerted for labour and environmental standards to be included in these trade agreements. Labour standards contain provisions relating to the minimum wage and working conditions, while environmental standards would prevent trade if there were fears of environmental damage. For example, a nation could allow free trade with another nation, with exceptions that prohibit imports